4000 - 3000 BC Archaeological findings from the prehistoric sites of Bubanj and Humska Čuka testify that Niš was inhabited as early as in the New Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Early Bronze Age.
2000 BC Several Archaeological sites in the immediate vicinity of Niš reveal prehistoric settlements on Bubanj, in Hum, Gornja and Donja Vrežina, Trupale and Gornja Toponica.
8th century BC Niš area represented the border-zone between the Illyrians and the Thracians.
3rd century BC The Illyrians were defeated by the Celts, who conquered the whole region, and gave Niš its first recorded name: Naissus (The City of Fairies).
75 BC The Niš area was conquered by the Romans during the Dardanian war.
161 AD The first surviving records, by Claudius Ptolomei, in which Niš was mentioned as one of the four biggest cities of Dardania.
2nd century Naissus was an important Roman military centre - a Municipium.
274 Constantine Flavius Valerius was born in Niš.
306 Constantine Flavius Valerius was proclaimed Roman Emperor Constantine the Great.
4th century Ancient Niš, with Constantine's residence at Mediana, flourished in prosperity, as a military and administrative centre of the Roman Empire.
441 Niš was devastated by the Huns, as were many other cities in the Balkans.
1185 Serbian Župan Stefan Nemanja took over the city of Niš.
1189 In Niš, Stefan Nemanja met Frederick I Barbarossa, the leader of the Crusaders, to discuss the strategy against the Byzantium.
1385 Niš was seized by the Turks for the first time. The siege lasted for 25 days.
1443 In the so-called Long Campaign, Christian armies, led by the Hungarian military leader Janos Hunyadi (known as Sibinjanin Janko in Serbian folk poetry) together with Serbian Despot Đurađ Branković, defeated the Turks and repelled them to Sofia. An important battle was fought near Niš, which remained a free city for a whole year after that.
1570 The Dubrovnik colony in Niš was mentioned by German diplomat Rime in his travelogues.
1723 The Niš Fortress was built. It is one of the best-preserved and the most beautiful edifices in the Balkans erected during the Turkish rule.
1737 Austrian armies seized Niš for the second time and held it for 85 days.
1766 Metropolitan Gavrilo published 'Sinđelija', the first book published here.
1809 The beginning of the Serbian campaign against the Turks. The first battles were fought near Niš.
May 31st 1809 Stevan Sinđelic, Karađorđe's voivoda, led the Niš Campaign army which fought the Turks at Čegar Hill near Niš, and was eventually defeated.
January 11th 1878 Niš was liberated from the Turks.
1878 "Project for the Regulation of Niš", designed by Winter started being applied in Niš town planning. The first Grammar School (Gimnazija) was founded.
1881 1881 The first bank was opened in Niš.
1882 1881 The Teachers' Training College was founded in Niš.
1884. god. The Niš - Belgrade railway line was opened to traffic.
The first issue of the local newspapers "Niški vjesnik" was published.
1885 1884 The first hardware workshop was founded. It later grew into the first and the biggest enterprise in the town.
1886. god. In Niš, the law was passed by which the Serbian Royal Academy was constituted.
1887 "Sinđelic", the first local theatre, was founded in Niš.
1889 The Public Library was opened; The building of the County Administration (Banovina) was erected.
1894 The Girls' College was founded in Niš.
1897 The citizens of Niš saw the first movie.
1900 1900 The first issue of "Gradina", local literary magazine, was published.
1903 1903 The first Workers' Culture Club was founded.
1905 Nadežda Petrović, well known Serbian paintress, founded the Fine Arts Colony in Sićevo, in the vicinity of Niš.
1906 The first full-time cinema was opened in a pavilion in Sinđelićev Trg (Sinđelic Square).
1908 The Sićevo hydro-electric power plant was built on the Nišava River near Niš.
1914 At the beginning of World War I, Niš became the war seat of the Serbian Government and the National Assembly.
December 7th, 1914 The Niš Declaration: the National Assembly issued a declaration, explaining the aims of the liberation war and announcing the constitution of a new state, in which all the South-Slav peoples would be united.
1915-1918 During World War I, Niš was occupied by the German and Bulgarian armies.
October 12th, 1918 Niš was liberated from the Germans.
1941 World War II. Niš was occupied by the Germans, who set up the Red Cross Concentration Camp in a Niš suburb. More than 12 000 prisoners were killed during the war, most of them shot on Bubanj Hill near Niš.
February 12th 1942 A successful escape from the Red Cross Concentration Camp was organized.
October 14th 1944 Niš was liberated from the Germans.
1965 1965 The University of Niš was founded.
1966 An important cultural festival established in Niš: Yugoslav Film Festival of Actors' Achievements.
1969 1969 Another cultural event established in Niš: Yugoslav Choral Festival (YCF), the International Festival of Amateur Choirs.
1971 "Narodne novine", the first modern local newspaper founded.
1975 Niš became the administrative centre of Niš Region.
1992. god. Niš became the centre of the Nišava Administrative District.
November 17th 1996 After the local elections, and the attempted fraud by the supporters of the ruling party, the citizens of Niš stood up in peaceful protest. It took the citizens 100 days of protest rallies to force the regime to accept the election results.
January 27th 1997 On St Sava's Day, the City Assembly was constituted.
September 4th 1998 The Consulate of the Hellenic Republic was officially opened in Niš. This was the first time in Serbian history that a diplomatic office was opened in a Serbian city other than the capital.